Guide End-Users (Volume 2)

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Volume 2 Issue 33/34 – Diar

Keyword: Transparent security; transparent password policy; password cracking; usable security; end-user cyber situational awareness. Bullo, A. Transparent password policies: A case study of investigating end-user situational awareness. PDF Download. Rockart and Flannery [23] propose a six-category view o f users : non-programmer end users, command level users, end - user programmers, functional support personnel, end-use r computing EUC support personnel and DP programmers. For our purposes, Martin's [16] classification is sufficient.

He observes three user types : non-programming end users , DP amateurs and DP professionals. The dimensions are programming skills can the use r program? Historically, DP profession- als developed from programmers and therefore the botto m left corner of Table 1 is empty.

This leaves in the left colum n Hybri d of Table 1 one relevant box which, in the context of syste m Prototypin g development, is populated by IS builders. In data process- ing all programming activities had been in professional hands until information technology brought about end-user com- puting and made feasible the combination of proven program - ming skills without DP background.

These users, whom w e 3 Prototypin g call sophisticated, are Martin's DP amateurs. Finally, w e 0 J view non-programmer end users as naive with respect to sys - tem development. Low High Beyond the two-way classification of Table 1, it is possi- User Satisfactio n ble to elaborate further on the sophisticated and naive use r types. System Developmen t mation technology independently from the IS organization. Value Tradeoffs They go beyond keying data into applications provided for them by the IS organization.

Some access the central data The IS organization is no longer expected to employ a sin - resource using the query facilities of a database managemen t gle IS development method. It is called upon rather to de - system. Others develop applications using fourth generatio n sign a development strategy aimed at matching th e languages. Users are considered naive if they have n o development approach with specific application characteris - access to a computer, or if their exposure to information tech - tics. Generally, enhancing the degree of design formality i s nology through applications is so transparent that there i s recommendable that is, more emphasis on SDLC as sys- no value added in terms of data processing understanding.

Prototypin g Sophisticated users are a product of the last decade.

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They should be introduced as the degree of user interactions an d have either some formal computer training for example, a s project uncertainty in terms of user requirements increases graduates of engineering and business schools or they hav e [7, 17]. IS management is expected to apply value judgmen t in choosing the development alternative and to be aware o f the multiattributed nature of the decision. TABLE 1.

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The y sional could be assigned to provide professional support , have no fear of technology and can utilize it to support thei r resulting in an IS-controlled UDA and reducing the risk s professional work when management provides the appropri- mentioned previously. If IS management considers the development task to b e The benefits of this trend, according to'[16], are in reduc- beyond the user's ability, an IS builder could assume develop - tion of application development backlogs and IS maintenanc e ment responsibility while still allowing prototyping contri- loads, but risks emerge [20].

Having no real DP credentials , butions. This development mode is a modified hybri d end user programmers produce user developed application s approach where a sophisticated user performs part or all o f UDAs that are deficient in documentation, backup, secur- the prototyping. Though IS management can help b y In summary, EUP is a system development methodolog y providing professional assistance and guidance [14], UD A that takes advantage of user sophistication and ends up i n management is problematic and should be handled carefull y either a professionally supervised UDA or in a productio n [26].

Similar risks also afflict less sophisticated forms o f system developed by the IS organization.

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  6. End-user program - EUC, such as application of microcomputer software fo r ming is thereby a strategy that distinguishes itself from othe r professional support. In the case histories detailed i n Conscious of the above risks, IS management is usuall y the next section end-user programming performed better o n concerned with the management of EUC in general and UD A relevant decisions attributes.

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    At this stage we can onl y in particular [23]. This concern of the IS organization is relat - hypothesize the advantages based on our experience and ac - ed to its control of the information environment and is usuall y knowledge that the dominance of end-user programming ha s separated from the issue of system development. However , yet to be conclusively ascertained. The following paragraphs we recommend avoiding such separation and suggest instea d include several logical arguments in support of the dominanc e the channeling of accumulated EUC experience to suppor t hypotheses. In other words, the sys- When IS professionals engage in prototyping projec t tem development strategy question is broadened to accoun t management becomes difficult, but in prototyping by en d for the user type, as well as the application type, in selec- users it might be possible for the builder to manage the de- tion of the IS development methodology.

    Also, be - cause in end-user programming the user is more active an d involved, the score on user satisfaction is probably bette r End-User Prototyping than with system designer prototyping. In Figure 2, end-use r wo roles are usually mentioned in relation to prototyp- programming is placed accordingly in dominance over th e T ing : user and builder [13]. Mason and Carey [17] devel- development options. Introduction of an architect role suggests perhap s 2 that a user is necessarily unsophisticated. If sophisticated users become involved in the system de- velopment process in a conventional naive capacity, oppor- End Use r tunities for process improvement are likely to be missed.

    The definition of end-user prototyp - Hybri d ing EUP makes explicit the changing role of the user an d Prototypin g is applicable only to a sophisticated user. EUP is the itera- tive, quick and inexpensive creation by a sophisticated user of live, working models to define and test system require- ments. EUP is different from both standard hybrid prototyp- ing, since under either of the latter development strategie s users are assumed to have no DP knowledge and to take les s participative user roles [21]. It would be unrealistic, therefore, to expect or to dictat e Low Hig h involvement of the IS organization from the beginning of a User Satisfaction project.

    System Development Valu e assign an IS professional to oversee the process. This liai- Tradeoffs with End User Prototypin g son person should advise IS management on the maximu m advantage to be drawn from user contributions to the fur- Opponents of prototyping view it as a "cover-up" for a ther development of the actual production system.

    If evaluation of the prototype [9] by IS ing and control [8]. In end-user programming the IS builde r management indicates that the user is capable of carryin g can avoid sloppiness because it is mainly the user who pur- the development process toward completion, an IS profes- sues prototyping. A sophisticated user, believing that the microcomputer coul d The impact of EUP on the investment of user time in th e do everything, interviewed other relevant users and attempte d project has yet to be evaluated and, if warranted, justified. Soon afterwards In the case studies examined later, time spent on prototyp- memory limits and the need to share the database interna- ing by sophisticated users meant savings along the life cycl e tionally brought the user to the IS organization requestin g of the system through better communication with the IS or- central development.

    In addition, tim e The activities up to that point, and user interaction wit h spent by users lead to a decrease in time invested by I S the IS professionals afterwards, meet the definition of EUP. Thus, the organization might view the benefit s based on the requirements of a user group, presented b y from EUP to be of enough value compared to other system means of the dBASEIII prototype and yielding a very effec- development strategies to justify user time expenditure. Both users and IS profes- sionals considered the remainder of the development proces s Demonstration Case Studie s a relatively positive experience that included conventiona l he case studies that follow provide evidence of rea l SDLC activities in parallel to continued EUP.

    T benefits received in an international chemical produc- The second EUP case had a completely different evolu- tion organization using this concept. End-user computing wa s tion. Users had developed a spreadsheet application for com- commissioned in , when the proliferation of microcom- puterization of the monthly production planning process.

    The company was growing at a application that involved two stages. First, suppliers of rele- rapid pace and the need for personal computing had becom e vant data presented it on diskettes to a planning coordinato r apparent. In particular, the vice president for marketing fel t who then combined the data and brought a preliminar y that in the absence of centrally developed marketing appli- production plan into a planning meeting.

    There, the final pla n cations personal computing was essential to a successful per- was completed after on-line sensitivity analyses. IS management was very soon after the introduction of personal computing an d also supportive in identifying the opportunity for selectiv e was constantly improved upon and modified by users. Fo r distributed data processing to relieve some of the pressur e a long time it was considered by both users and IS profes- exerted by marketing on the resources of the IS group.

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    After two years Recommendations on end-user computing management i n of operation, despite continued successful performance, users leading publications [23] have been implemented. An out - expressed preference for a decision support system on th e side training group was hired for the purpose of introducing mainframe. In consultation with IS professionals, and with users to the technology. A functional support position was the UDA serving as a preliminary prototype, it was conclud- created so that users could get in-house help and advice.

    Within si x locations was needed. In the development of the requeste d months, twenty-five users had access to seven microcom- system, IS professionals used structured development tools puters, printers, a plotter, Lotus , dBASEIII, word whilst the frame of reference in communication betwee n processing and software to handle such applications as statis- builders and users was based on the line and working models tics, library management and communication.

    Eighteen months of end-user computing found users, su- The two case histories are quite different. Pierce, M. However, the market downfall is taking major US exchanges in its wake. Traded volumes on Coinbase, Bitstamp and Kraken have seen steep declines. Meanwhile, token exchanges outside the US, that have lax regulator scrutiny, are now seeing an increase in traded volume with the majors.

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