The need for intercultural communicative competence arises when the participants of an interaction have different cultural backgrounds. In communication, the cultural background can be the basis for a common shared world, a set of beliefs, behaviours and meanings shared by a social group. The need for a common shared world is a motivating factor for communication, but the shared world has to be created by the interlocutors in order to achieve a successful interaction cf.
Since the shared world of two native speakers is different from that of two speakers with diverse cultural backgrounds, Byram argues against the native speaker as an ideal for foreign language learners. Instead, Byram proposes the intercultural speaker, who is capable of meeting the demands of intercultural communication, as an ideal. A learner can acquire these factors through experience and reflection, but their acquisition in an educational setting with the help of a teacher can additionally promote the development of critical cultural awareness, the fifth component of intercultural competence cf.
Attitudes towards people from a different culture often include prejudices or stereotypes, which can lead to unsuccessful interaction. For a successful intercultural interaction attitudes of curiosity and openness are needed instead. The knowledge needed for intercultural communication can be divided into two categories. As it is acquired through primary and secondary socialisation, this knowledge is always present in a more or less refined degree, some of it being conscious, some unconscious.
Anthology of Medieval German Literature
It includes knowledge of the shared beliefs, behaviours and meanings of the social group one belongs to and of diverse identities national, regional, social etc. Knowledge about other countries is usually relational, i. The second category refers to knowledge that is a precondition for successful interaction, but is not acquired automatically.
It should be complemented by procedural knowledge of how to act in specific circumstances cf. Two kinds of skills are part of intercultural competence, the first of which being the skills of interpreting and relating. The intercultural speaker should be able to identify ethnocentric perspectives and pre-suppositions of documents and thus be able to mediate between conflicting interpretations cf.
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These abilities are needed when the intercultural speaker has none or only partial knowledge of the foreign culture and has to establish and negotiate an understanding of a new cultural environment under the constraints of prevalent circumstances cf. They include identifying similarities and differences in documents and processes of interaction. This should be done from a rational and explicit standpoint. The components of intercultural competence are interdependent in various ways.
An attitude of openness also facilitates the discovery of new knowledge and interaction with foreign cultures. The components of knowledge are in turn preconditions for the skills of interpreting and relating as these draw upon existing knowledge. So do the skills of discovery and interaction, by which knowledge of other cultures can be augmented and refined cf. Communicative competence is closely connected to the factors of intercultural competence and consists of linguistic, sociolinguistic and discourse competence cf.
Due to the restricted length of this paper, these cannot be discussed in detail. VWL - Wettbewerbstheorie, Wettbewerbspolitik. Anglistik - Literatur. Germanistik - Linguistik. Amerikanistik - Kultur und Landeskunde. Politik - Grundlagen und Allgemeines. Anglistik - Kultur und Landeskunde. Anglistik - Sonstiges. Didaktik - Englisch - Landeskunde.
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Anglistik - Linguistik. Registrieren oder einloggen. Optional: Anmelde-Code. Verbinden mit Facebook. Despite the author's own differentiation from Austria due to her criticism of Austria's Nazi past Jelinek's writing is deeply rooted in the tradition of Austrian literature , showing the influence of Austrian writers such as Ingeborg Bachmann , Marlen Haushofer , and Robert Musil.
Jelinek's political positions, in particular her feminist stance and her Communist Party affiliations, are of vital importance to any assessment of her work. They are also a part of the reason for the controversy directed at Jelinek and her work. Editor Friederike Eigler states that Jelinek has three major and inter-related "targets" in her writing: capitalist consumer society and its commodification of all human beings and relationships, the remnants of Austria's fascist past in public and private life, and the systematic exploitation and oppression of women in a capitalist- patriarchal society.
Jelinek was a member of Austria's Communist Party from to Following the National Council elections and the subsequent formation of a coalition cabinet consisting of the Freedom Party and the Austrian People's Party , Jelinek became one of the new cabinet's most vocal critics. Many foreign governments moved swiftly to ostracize Austria's administration, citing the Freedom Party's alleged nationalism and authoritarianism.
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This provoked a temporary heating of the political climate severe enough for dissidents such as Jelinek to be accused of treason by coalition supporters. Jelinek petitioned for the release of Jack Unterweger , who was imprisoned for the murder of a prostitute, and who was regarded by intellectuals and politicians as an example of successful rehabilitation. Unterweger was later found guilty of murdering nine more women within two years of his release, and committed suicide after his arrest.
Jelinek's work is multi-faceted and highly controversial. It has been praised and condemned by leading literary critics. Female sexuality , sexual abuse, and the battle of the sexes in general are prominent topics in her work. We are Decoys, Baby! According to Jelinek, power and aggression are often the principal driving forces of relationships.
Her provocative novel Lust contains graphic description of sexuality, aggression and abuse. It received poor reviews by many critics, some of whom likened it to pornography. But others, who noted the power of the cold descriptions of moral failures, considered it to have been misunderstood and undervalued by them. Her novel The Piano Teacher was the basis for the film of the same title by Austrian director Michael Haneke , starring Isabelle Huppert as the protagonist. Her work is less known in English-speaking countries. Jelinek said she felt very happy to receive the Nobel Prize, but felt "despair for becoming a known, a person of the public".
Known for her modesty and subtle self-irony , she — a reputed feminist writer — wondered if she had been awarded the prize mainly for "being a woman", and suggested that among authors writing in German, Peter Handke , whom she praises as a "living classic", would have been a more worthy recipient. Jelinek was criticized for not accepting the prize in person; instead, a video message was presented at the ceremony. Others appreciated how Jelinek revealed that she suffers from agoraphobia and social phobia , paranoid conditions that developed when she first decided to write seriously.
She has said her anxiety disorders make it impossible for her to go to the cinema or board an airplane in an interview she wished to be able to fly to New York to see the skyscrapers one day before dying , and incapable of taking part in any ceremony. In , Knut Ahnlund left the Swedish Academy in protest, describing Jelinek's work as "whining, unenjoyable public pornography", as well as "a mass of text shovelled together without artistic structure".
He said later that her selection for the prize "has not only done irreparable damage to all progressive forces, it has also confused the general view of literature as an art". From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Jump to: navigation , search. Elfriede Jelinek Elfriede Jelinek in Elfriede Jelinek.
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The Biography. Retrieved , Nov 22, Contemporary Literary Criticism. March The Australian , 5 May Boston Globe , 12 October This section lacks ISBNs for the books listed in it.
Please make it easier to conduct research by listing ISBNs. February Works by Elfriede Jelinek. Rein Gold.