- On Nineteen Eighty-Four: Orwell and Our Future;
- Being White in the Helping Professions: Developing Effective Intercultural Awareness;
- Someone Else’s Skin (DI Marnie Rome 1).
- Kennewick (Images of America).
The Result of International Cooperation. One hundred and sixty-seven scholars from fifty-four nations have contributed their time and knowledge to improving the accuracy of a new electronically searchable database for the archive of the Communist International. The opening, in the early s, of the archives of the Communist International made available to scholars around the world a tremendously rich resource.
The great size of the Communist International archive, however, slowed exploration of this valuable source of original documentation. Scholars, whose principal interest was in the politics of a particular country, also found the Russian language of the RGASPI finding aids a barrier as was the difficulty in traveling to Moscow. The database is essentially an edited electronic version of the printed finding aids allowing computer searches using file descriptors, key words, and personal or organizational names. The U. Library of Congress agreed to be the lead agency for translation of the database with Dr.
- Fuel the Fire (Chapter 16 Book 3).
- BAJO EL SAUCE -HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN (Spanish Edition);
Ronald D. However, Library of Congress linguists quickly found that translation of more than , personal names that occurred in the database was a more difficult task.
These personal names occurred in descriptions of files of various Comintern secretariats and agencies. The greatest number, however, came with more than , personal files maintained by the Comintern, the so called cadre files. These files are background files for persons for whom for one reason or another the Comintern at some point set up a biographical file. Many are for Comintern personnel, students at Comintern schools, and senior members of foreign parties. However, many files were also established for persons who were prominent opponents of the Communist movement.
For example, the Comintern maintained a biographical file on J. The Comintern established files on thousands of persons who were simply of political importance such as major political or governmental figures, journalists, diplomats, trade union officials or others who were of interest to the Communist International for whatever.
Methodological problems of translation. While the Library of Congress made the initial translation of most national personal file lists, the Archives of France, the Federal Archives of Germany, and the Federal Archives of Switzerland undertook the initial translation of their respective national lists. In those cases, the Library of Congress provided only a computer transliteration from Russian to the Library of Congress phonetic Cyrillic to Latin alphabet transliteration system.
Here is the translation problem. The Comintern labeled its personal files in Russian: all English, French, Spanish, Japanese, German, Finnish and other language names were transliterated into Russian by Comintern files clerks with varying linguistic ability and with differing transliterating habits.
Linguists now faced the task of translating these Cyrillic-alphabet Russian names into Latin-alphabet English. The Russian name on the file is now being translated into English. The inherent problems of this double translation is compounded in that in English phonetically identical names can often be spelled with different combinations of letters with equal linguistic accuracy.
Consequently when linguists translated these names from Russian into English, while most were entirely accurate, a portion will inevitably not be spelled correctly compared to the original non-Russian spelling. This will cause problems for someone searching under one spelling and not realizing that it may be in the database under a variant spelling.
The problem cannot be eliminated entirely. To go back into the files to verify the native language spelling of more than one-hundred thousand names was not a practical possibility. INCOMKA sought to reduce the extent of the problem by sending the translations prepared by Library of Congress linguists to scholars who know the Comintern and the national parties and can match the translations with their knowledge of names of real persons.
The American personal files for example. The American personal file list illustrates the nature of the problem and the usefulness of having the translations reviewed by subject area scholars. The Comintern maintained personal files on more than 6, Americans. Rather, the translator simply picked a variation in English spelling that was not the one Earl Browder actually used. Again, this is not an error but the sort of inevitable garble one occasionally gets when phonetically translating Russian into English with the variety of ways names can be spelled in English.
The engagement of international specialists. The INCOMKA project sought out specialists throughout the world to review and correct garbles and misspellings in the lists of personal files. Sometimes the specialists were also able to identify files that were labeled with a pseudonym and supply the correct real name.
By any measure it was highly successful example of international cooperation. Thousands of translation garbles and misspellings of personal names have been corrected. Researchers for decades to come who will be using the INCOMKA database will be spared frustration, wasted time, and missed files due to this international effort.
For that, the international community of scholars should be truly grateful. The Incomka project is now in its final stage, and it is anticipated that the final product will be available for research use at each member institution by mid Initial Translations made by Library of Congress specialists under the supervision of Ronald Bachman; John Haynes coordinated sending the translations to reviewers. Afghanistan: fond , 34 files; initial translation by Library of Congress LoC.
Reviewed by A. Albania: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by Stephen Schwartz and Shaban Sinani. Algeria: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by Emmanuel Sivan and Allison Drew. Argentina: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by David Rock. Australia: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Austria: fond , files; initial translation by LoC.
Bangladesh: fond , 24 files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by John Haynes. Belgium: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by Jose Gotovitch. Bolivia: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Brazil: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Bulgaria: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by Vernon Pedersen and Evelina Kelbetcheva.
Burma: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by Bertil Lintner and Robert Taylor. Cameroon: fond , 8 files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by by John Haynes. Canada: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by George Bolotenko and Ed Laine. Catalonia: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Ceylon: fond , files; initial translation by LoC.
Chile: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by Corinne Pernet and Peter Winn. Colombia: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by Robert Alexander. Comintern Administrative Department, fond a, 14, files. Because these names are largely of Russian origin or were the names of Soviet national minorities often with Russified names in the original, this list has been computer transliterated with review by John Haynes.
Communist University of Toilers of the East: fond , 4, files; fond , 5, files; fond , files; and fond , 29 files; initial translation by LoC. Communist University of National Minorities of the West: fond , 18 files; fond , files; fond , 92 files; fond , 73 files; fond , 80 files; fond , 59 files; fond , 71 files; fond , files; fond , files; fond , files; fond , files; fond , files; fond , files; fond , files; fond , 89 files; fond , 48 files; fond , 26 files; fond , files; fond , 2, files; fond , files; initial translation by LoC.
Costa Rica: fond , 74 files; initial translation by LoC. Cuba: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by Robert Alexander and Margalit Bejarano. Cyprus: fond , 52 files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by Marios Hadjianastasis and Sinan Kuneralp. Czechoslovakia: fond , 8, files; initial translation by LoC.
Reviewed by Pavol Salamon.
Denmark: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by Morten Thing. Dominican Republic: fond , 19 files; initial translation by LoC. Egypt: fond , files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by Rifaat Said and Joel Beinin. El Salvador: fond , 62 files; initial translation by LoC. Reviewed by Erik Ching and Aldo Santiago.
Ecuador: fond , 75 files; initial LoC translation complete. Finland: fond , 1, files; initial translation by LoC. France: fond , 9, files; initial computer transliteration made by LoC. Translation and review by Georges Mouradian.
Germany: fond , 14, files; initial computer translation made by LoC. Ghana: fond , 11 files; initial translation by LoC.
Great Britain: fond , 1, files; initial translation by LoC.